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Study Reveals Challenges in Harmonizing Climate Goals and Biodiversity Protection Amidst Legal Complexities

Legal Challenges
In a groundbreaking study recently published under the title “Balancing climate goals and biodiversity protection: legal implications of the 30×30 target for land-based carbon removal,” researchers have delved into the intricate challenges arising from the intersection of land-based Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) Strategies and the establishment of protected areas within the ambit of international environmental law.

Key Highlights of the Study

1. Limited Land Availability

The study underscores a critical hurdle in pursuing the dual objectives of biodiversity conservation and land-based climate mitigation strategies – the constrained availability of land. As nations pledge significant portions of their territories for CDR activities, concerns are raised about the potential clash with the establishment of protected areas due to the scarcity of available land.

2. Global Targets and Current Status

Against the backdrop of global environmental commitments, nations have collectively embraced the ambitious “30×30” biodiversity target. This target seeks to safeguard 30% of the world’s terrestrial and marine areas by 2030. However, the reality, as of 2023, paints a sobering picture with protected areas covering only approximately 16% of terrestrial regions and 8% of marine expanses. Falling short of the 30×30 goal, this shortfall highlights the urgency in addressing the widening gap to fulfil this global imperative for halting species loss and preserving ecosystems critical for economic security.

3. Land Use and Conflict

The study’s findings shed light on the inherent conflict between certain land-based mitigation strategies and the imperative to establish additional protected areas due to constraints in land use. The widescale deployment of CDR activities raises concerns over exacerbating biodiversity loss and intensifying competition for land that is also earmarked for vital food crop production.

4. Insufficiency of Targets

Despite the loftiness of the 30×30 target, researchers assert that a more substantial commitment is needed, estimating that a minimum of 44% of global land should fall under protected areas to effectively conserve biodiversity. Additionally, there is a growing realization that relying solely on CDR activities may fall short of meeting the goals outlined in the Paris Agreement to limit global warming.

5. Challenges in Implementation

As the study prompts reflection, questions linger about how countries will navigate the intricate task of allocating additional land for protected areas and restoration, all while expanding food production and implementing CDR strategies. The complexity of striking a balance between these objectives poses a considerable challenge that necessitates careful consideration and strategic planning.

6. Legal Perspectives

The study’s exploration of legal dimensions reveals that while certain land-based CDR approaches could potentially benefit biodiversity, existing international environmental law does not explicitly prohibit the simultaneous implementation of CDR techniques alongside the establishment of protected areas on the same land parcels.


In light of these findings, the study underlines the pressing need to focus on CDR policies that not only effectively absorb greenhouse gases but also prioritize the protection of biodiversity. Urgency is emphasized, highlighting that the imminent threat posed by climate change to biodiversity far outweighs other concerns. The recommendations underscore the necessity for a comprehensive and integrated approach to address the complex interplay between climate goals and biodiversity protection, urging a unified effort to tackle this global challenge.